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Raynaud’s Syndrome Pictures

What is Raynaud’s syndrome?

It is a condition wherein some areas of the body get numb and cold. It usually affects the fingers and toes and it usually happens when a person is exposed to stress and/or cold temperature. (1, 2)



Raynauds-syndrome-pictures-Bluish-discoloration-of-the-fingernails-caused-by-restricted-blood-flow.picture

Picture 1 : Bluish discoloration of the fingernails caused by restricted blood flow.

photo source : medicinenet.com

Raynaud’s syndrome symptoms

Raynauds-syndrome-pictures-The-toes-are-cold-and-discoloured-as-a-body’s-way-to-cope-with-stress-and-exposure-to-cold.-picture
Picture 2: The toes are cold and discoloured as a body’s way to cope with stress and exposure to cold.

image source: 2.bp.blogspot.com

 

Raynaud's syndrome pictures.image

Picture 3: The fingers first turn white and will eventually change into blue

image source: knowyourdoctor.com

The fingers first turn white and will eventually change into blue. There is a feeling of cold and numbness on the skin. It usually affects the toes and fingers, but it can also affect the lips, nose, ears, and other areas of the body. (2, 3, and 4)

Types of Raynaud’s disease

Primary Raynaud’s

Raynaud’s-syndrome-picture-The-fingers-are-pale-and-turns-red-after-some-time.-picture
Picture 4: The fingers are pale and turns red after some time.

photo source: nejm.org

It is a mild numbing and coldness of the skin, which usually resolve on its own without requiring medical treatment. (4)

Secondary Raynaud’s/Raynaud’s phenomenon

A severe form of Raynaud’s disease which could lead to ulcers and gangrene if not treated.

image 5: A severe form of Raynaud’s disease which could lead to ulcers and gangrene if not treated.

image source: medicinenet.com

It is caused by an underlying medical condition. It is a more serious type but is less common. (2)

Causes of Raynaud’s disease

  • Vasospasm of the arteries after being exposed to stress and cold environment. The arteries will slightly thicken resulting to limited flow of blood.
  • Connective tissue disease
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Chronic smoking
  • Repetitive movement, action, or vibration such as playing the piano and typing.
  • Injuries to the hands and/or feet.
  • Side effects of medications such as beta-blockers. (5, 6, and 7)

Who are at risk?

  • Women are more at risk than men.
  • Reynaud’s syndrome usually begins between ages 15 and 30.
  • Those who live in colder climates are at risk.
  • Reynaud’s syndrome runs in the family. (7)

What are the possible complications?

Raynaud's syndrome pictures Gangrene formation, a severe complication of Raynaud’s disease.image
picture 6: Gangrene formation, a severe complication of Raynaud’s disease.

photo source: medscapestatic.com

 

Raynaud's syndrome pictures The fingers are severely destructed secondary to Raynaud’s disease.photo
Picture 7: The fingers are severely destructed secondary to Raynaud’s disease.

image source: flandershealth.us

A severe case of Raynaud’s syndrome could lead to a diminished blood circulation to the fingers and toes leading to tissue damage. When the artery is blocked skin ulcers may happen, which could lead to gangrene. If the condition is left untreated, it could lead to amputation. (3, 6, 7, and 8)

Raynaud syndrome diagnosis

There are a series of test doctors used to diagnose Raynaud’s syndrome. They are the following:

Nail fold capillaroscopy

Raynaud's syndrome pictures A small device used to check the condition of the skin and nails.photo
Picture 8: A small device used to check the condition of the skin and nails.

image source: jamanetwork.com

It is done to distinguish primary from secondary Raynaud’s. The skin at the base of the fingernail will be checked under a microscope or magnifier to watch for signs of enlarged tiny blood vessels.

Blood Test

If the doctor is suspecting other conditions, blood test will be checked specially the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and antinuclear antibodies test. (2, 3)

Raynaud’s syndrome treatments

The goal of the treatment is to prevent tissue damage, reduce the occurrence and severity of the attack, and treat the underlying medical condition. (1, 4)

Medications for treatment and management of Raynaud’s syndrome

The medications should dilate the blood vessels to promote proper circulation of blood. Medications include calcium channel blockers and vasodilators. (5, 6)

Surgical approach

Nerve surgery

Raynaud's syndrome pictures The sympathetic nerves are cut to lessen the episode of Raynaud’s disease.picture
Picture 9: The sympathetic nerves are cut to lessen the episode of Raynaud’s disease.

image source: i.ytimg.com

The sympathetic nerves (the one that controls the opening and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin) are cut to alter the exaggerated responses. It reduces the frequency and duration of Raynaud’s syndrome. (7)

Chemical injection

Raynaud's syndrome pictures A fat tissue is injected to the hands of the patient.image
Picture 10: A fat tissue is injected to the hands of the patient.

image source: exploreplasticsurgery.com

The doctor will inject chemicals like onabotulinumtoxin type A (Botox) and local anesthetics to block the action of sympathetic nerves in the affected hands and/or feet. (8)

How to prevent Raynaud’s disease?

  • When going outside and it’s cold, you need to bundle up. Wear socks, hat, scarf, and boots. If possible, you wear two layers of mittens to protect your hands from extreme cold.
  • When driving in cold weather, you should warm your car.
  • Set your air conditioner to warm temperature. (2, 4, and 5)

References

  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/raynauds-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20363571
  2. https://www.medicinenet.com/raynauds_phenomenon/article.htm
  3. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/331197-overview
  4. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/raynauds/
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynaud_syndrome
  6. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/176713.php
  7. https://www.webmd.com/arthritis/tc/raynauds-phenomenon-topic-overview#1
  8. https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/raynauds-phenomenon

 

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